Autonomous Emergency Braking
Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is an advanced safety feature found in many modern vehicles that can help prevent or mitigate collisions by applying the brakes autonomously if the driver fails to react to an impending collision.
AEB systems use sensors such as cameras, radar, and lidar to detect potential collisions with other vehicles, pedestrians, or obstacles in the vehicle’s path. Suppose the system determines that a collision is imminent and the driver has not taken action to avoid it. In that case, the system will automatically apply the brakes to either slow down or stop the vehicle before impact.
There are two main types of AEB systems:
Forward Collision Warning (FCW) with Autonomous Emergency Braking: FCW uses sensors to detect the distance and speed of vehicles or obstacles ahead and provides a visual or audible warning to the driver if a potential collision is detected. If the driver fails to respond, the AEB system will engage and apply the brakes to prevent or reduce the severity of a collision. Read more about FCW here.
Pedestrian Detection with Autonomous Emergency Braking: This type of AEB system uses sensors to detect pedestrians in the vehicle’s path and will apply the brakes autonomously if the driver does not take action to avoid a collision.
Autonomous Emergency Braking can help improve road safety by reducing the likelihood and severity of collisions. However, it’s important to note that AEB systems are not a substitute for attentive and safe driving practices, and drivers should always remain focused and alert while behind the wheel.
The European Union (EU) has implemented regulations for Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems on new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles as part of the General Safety Regulation (GSR) (EU) 2019/2144. The regulations require that all new vehicles sold in the EU must be equipped with an AEB system as standard equipment.
The EU regulation specifies that the AEB system must meet the following requirements:
- The system must be able to detect vehicles and pedestrians in the path of the vehicle and must operate at speeds up to at least 60 km/h (37 mph).
- The AEB system must provide a warning to the driver in the event of an imminent collision.
- If the driver fails to respond to the warning, the AEB system must apply the brakes autonomously to prevent or mitigate a collision.
- The AEB system must be able to operate in a variety of driving conditions, such as in urban, rural, and motorway environments.
- The AEB system must be designed to minimize the risk of false alarms or unwanted braking events.
The EU regulation also requires that manufacturers provide a standard set of performance tests to demonstrate the effectiveness of the AEB system.
Overall, these requirements aim to improve the safety of vehicles on European roads by reducing the likelihood and severity of collisions, especially in situations where the driver may not be able to react quickly enough to avoid a collision.
EURO NCAP performs test and rating of these systems
- AEB Cyclist Test of system against cyclist
- AEB Pedestrian Several tests related to pedestrians
- AEB Motorcyclist Several tests related to motorcycles
- AEB Car to car Several tests related to cars
Below, you see the Euro NCAP test of Tesla Model Y. From 2:30, you see different AEB tests.