Last modified: Jan 5, 2024

CLTC Range testing

The CLTC is a driving cycle that simulates Chinese drivers' typical driving conditions and patterns.

China Automotive Technology & Research Center ( CATARC ) developed the cycle in 2020. It replaced the previous test cycle, the China AutomotiveTest Cycle (CATC), based on the outdated New European Driving Cycle (NEDC).

The CLTC cycle was created by following more than 5000 cars in China over three years. CATARC used the driving data to create cycles to replicate how people drive cars in China.

The CLTC-P contains 11 short trips (including seven short trips in the low-speed phase, three short trips in the medium-speed phase, and one short trip in the high-speed phase) and 12 idle segments, totaling 1800 seconds.

#Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Total
Duration, Seconds6746934331800
Stop, seconds398
Distance in meter24505910612014480
Percent stop22.11%
Max speed48.171.2114114
Average speed w/o stop20.1938.2453.8937.18
Average speed w stop13.0830.6750.928.96
Maximum deceleration m/s^2-1.42-1.47-1.46-1.47
Max acceleration m/s^21.471.441.061.47

How is the CLTC performed?

The CLTC is performed on a dynamometer, which is a device that simulates driving conditions by placing the vehicle on rollers and measuring its performance. The vehicle is tested in a laboratory under controlled temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions.

The testing procedure starts with fully charging the vehicle’s battery and leaving it parked overnight. The next day, the vehicle is driven on the dynamometer following the speed profile of the CLTC until the battery is completely depleted or the vehicle cannot maintain a minimum speed of 40 km/h (25 mph). The total distance traveled by the vehicle during the test is recorded as the preliminary range estimate.

However, this estimate is then adjusted by a correction factor to account for variations in driving conditions, such as temperature, terrain, and driver behavior. The correction factor is based on data collected from real-world driving by EV owners in different regions of China. The final range estimate is the product of the preliminary and correction factors.

How does the CLTC compare to other test cycles?

CLTC estimates are mostly higher than both WLTP and EPA range figures.

However, some experts argue that the CLTC is not necessarily unrealistic or inaccurate but reflects the specific characteristics of Chinese roads and drivers.

Therefore, they suggest that the CLTC is more suitable for evaluating EV range in China than other test cycles that are based on foreign driving patterns and environments. They also recommend that consumers should compare EV range estimates based on the same test cycle rather than different ones to avoid confusion and misunderstanding.

See table below for examples.

Tesla Model 3 Long Range678km/421 miles713km/443 miles
Nio EL7 100kWh513km/319 miles620km/385 miles
Volvo EX30 Performance/265 miles460km/285 miles540km/335 miles
Lotus Eletre S? km/? miles535km/332 miles650km/404 miles

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